The essential conclusion of the article is that the radiocarbon datings were accurate, but because the samples were from cloth that was not part of the original Shroud, they are irrelevant regarding the age of the image area.
The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid and a reducing sugar.
They add that the variance of the C-14 results of the three labs falls outside the bounds of the Pearson's chi-square test, so that some additional explanation should be sought for the discrepancy.
The claims by Marino and Benford on the lack of statistical consistency of the results of the 1988 radiocarbon test were in contrast with the conclusions of J. Christen, who, in 1994, claimed to have applied a "robust approach" (Bayesian) to the radiocarbon data and concluded that the given age for the Shroud was correct, from a statistical point of view.
He also sent some of the fibers to a research lab for independent examination.
When they were preparing samples, in one case they accidentally pulled apart the cotton and linen sections of one fiber.
At the University of Arizona he studied chemistry receiving a BS in 1950.
Rogers claimed that the repair had gone undetected because it was expertly done, there was no record of it, none of the STURP team were textile experts, and the area had not previously been a major focus of any major Shroud researchers' attention because it was outside the image area.
He received other awards and recognitions from LANL and many professional organizations.
He was granted a sabbatical in 1968 to pursue post-graduate studies in archaeology.
The cellulose fibers of the shroud are coated with a thin carbohydrate layer of starch fractions, various sugars, and other impurities. Rogers and Anna Arnoldi, in a joint paper of 2003 proposed that amines from a recently deceased human body may have undergone Maillard reactions with this carbohydrate layer within a reasonable period of time, before liquid decomposition products stained or damaged the cloth.
The gases produced by a dead body are extremely reactive chemically and within a few hours, in an environment such as a tomb, a body starts to produce heavier amines in its tissues such as putrescine and cadaverine.
, which would seem at first glance to be a radical departure for her.